King Henry III demanded Eleanor as a bride for Edward to forge
an alliance between the two countries. The same year as his
marriage to Eleanor Prince Edward became the Duke of Gascony.
The young couple did not live together until Eleanor was in her
late teens. The marriage of convenience turned into a marriage
of love. This was the time of the Crusades and Eleanor
accompanied Prince Edward to the Holy Land and the 1270–1272
Crusade. Edward arrived in Acre in May 1271 with 1,000 knights.
It is said that she saved his life after he had been wounded.
King Henry III died in 1274 and at the age of 35 years of age
Prince Edward became King of England. Eleanor and Edward were
both crowned in Westminster Abbey on the 19th of August 1274.
King Edward was a veteran warrior and referred to as "the best
lance in all the world". He was strong , brave, hot tempered and
ambitious - he intended to increase his lands and power.
Please visit the following website for more information about
Edward I and all the other Medieval Kings of the Middle
King Edward I & the Welsh Medieval Castles
King Edward I & the Welsh Medieval Castles
- Edward I Biography - why plans to build Medieval Welsh
Castles were important
- Welsh towns based on Burghs & Bastides
- Wales becomes incorporated into Britain
- Longshanks, the Hammer of the Scots - William Wallace
and Robert the Bruce
King Edward I - Wars with Wales & Llywelyn ap Gruffyd
King Edward was determined to enforce the claims of the English
kings to their supremacy in the British Isles - including
Scotland and Wales. At this time Wales consisted of several
separate kingdoms. King Edward had an alliance with the leaders
in South Wales but North Wales was a problem. Llywelyn ap
Gruffyd, was Prince of Gwynedd in North Wales. Welsh Battles
with Edward's father had led to the Peace of Montgomery in 1267
in which Llywelyn ap Gruffyd was conferred the title as Prince
of Wales. In return Llywelyn ap Gruffyd had agreed that he was
subservient to the English King. However, Llywelyn reneged on
the agreement. He refused to do homage to Edward and he did not
attend Edward's coronation. In 1277 King Edward branded Llywelyn
ap Gruffyd as "a rebel and disturber of the peace" and declared
his lands forfeit. Edward I launched a massive invasion of
Wales, re-conquering South Wales and defeating Llywelyn ap
Gruffyd and North Wales. He was forced to accept the peace of
Aberconwy 1278. Llywelyn ap Gruffyd could not accept defeat and
in 1282 mounted a second Welsh rebellion with his brother David.
Llywelyn ap Gruffyd was killed in battle and his brother David
was captured and executed. Wales had been conquered by Edward I
and became incorporated into England under the Statute of
Rhuddlan ( also called the Statute of Wales ) in 1284.
King Edward I strategy of building the Welsh Medieval Castles
King Edward I was determined to to ensure his conquest of Wales
and to to incorporate Wales with England. He knew that the Welsh
would be difficult to subdue and that more Welsh rebellions were
inevitable. He wanted to demonstrate the supremacy of the
English and build power bases in Wales which would totally
dominate the Welsh. The English King decided on a strategy of
building elaborate fortresses and castles in Wales in order to
crush and intimidate the Welsh population. His castle building
strategy started in 1278, following the first Welsh rebellion.
In 1278 Edward commissioned the building of four major castles
in Wales - Flint, Rhuddlan, Builth and Aberystwyth. More
medieval castles were built following the second rebellion of
1282 and the building of Caernarfon, Conwy, Harlech and
Beaumaris castles were also commissioned. King Edward was
correct in his view that the Welsh would be difficult to subdue.
Less than 12 years after the Statute of Rhuddlan the Welsh
mounted another rebellion. The Welsh rebellion of 1294 was led
by Madog ap Llywelyn who over ran Caernarvon Castle. It was
re-captured the next year. Not only did King Edward I build the
Welsh Medieval castles he also integrated new townships at the
same time. These fortified townships were based on the Burghs,
or Burhs, of King Alfred the Great and the Bastides of Gascony.
King Edward I was able to keep his tight reign over Wales due to
his massive power bases provided by his Welsh Medieval Castles
and his purpose-built Welsh
Medieval Fortified Townships.